Antacid means “medicine for heartburn”, and the etymology comes from anti (counter) and acid (acid). Let’s see an example sentence.
Antacids are a kind of gastrointestinal medicine, which has the effect of neutralizing stomach acid. Antacids raise the pH in the stomach and alleviate heartburn. Heartburn is a symptom that causes too much stomach acid to flow back into the esophagus. It make us feels burning pain in our chest.
antagonistは「悪役」を意味し、語源はanti（対抗）とagon（競争）に由来します。同義語はbad guy, villainで、対義語はprotagonist, heroです。
Antagonist means “a villain”, and the origin is derived from anti (counter) and agon (competition). Synonyms are bad guy and villain. Antonyms are protagonist and hero. Let’s see an example sentence.
An antagonist is a person who is hostile to the hero in the story. If the antagonist is tougher, the audience will feel a thrill in the story. The world’s most famous antagonist is Darth Vader who appears in Star Wars.
Antagonist is also used in the field of pharmacy, meaning “medicine for weakening”. Synonym is blocker. An antagonist is a drug that weakens the action of a specific substance. For example, calcium antagonists are used to treat hypertension. Because it has the effect of inhibiting the calcium channel and spreading blood vessels.
Antibiotic means “medicine to kill bacteria”, and the etymology comes from anti (counter) and bioticus (organism). Let’s see an example sentence.
Antibiotics are substances that are produced by microorganisms and suppress the growth of other microorganisms. Antibiotics are used as chemicals to control bacterial infections. Thanks to antibiotics, the average life expectancy of humans has increased greatly.
Although antibiotics are powerful, they sometimes kill beneficial bacteria in the body. Antibiotics are effective only for bacteria and have no effect on viruses. Antiviral agents are effective for viruses. Penicillin is the first antibiotic made in the world, and Alexander Fleming discovered it from the mold.
Antibody means “substance to kill bacteria”, and the etymology is the abbreviation of anti-toxic body (antitoxin).
Antibodies are substances made in the body to eliminate viruses and bacteria. Antibody recognizes viruses and bacteria as antigens and sticks them, and leukocytes and macrophages eat them together.
However, when you develop allergy, the body recognizes harmless substances as antigens, causing various symptoms in the human body.
Anti-cancer means “to cure cancer”, and the etymology comes from anti (counter) and cancer (cancer).
By the way, cancer is derived from the fact that the blood vessels around the tumor resemble the shape of a crab. Let’s see an example sentence.
Anticancer drugs control the growth of cancer. There are three types of cancer treatment, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy. Anticancer drugs are classified as chemotherapy.
Anti-cancer drugs have an effect of stopping cell proliferation, so side effects are also large. The main side effects are nausea, depilation, loss of immunity, anorexia, constipation. Anticancer drugs are very expensive, but in Japan we can reduce drastically the burden of medical expenses by the high medical cost system.
anticycloneは「高気圧」を意味し、語源はanti（対抗）とcyclone（台風）に由来します。同義語はhigh pressureで、対義語はcyclone, low pressureです。
Anticyclone is “high pressure”, and the origin is derived from anti (counter) and cyclone (typhoon). The synonym is high pressure. The opposite words are cyclone and low pressure. Let’s see an example sentence.
Anticyclone is the place where the pressure is higher than the surroundings. Under anticyclone clouds are reduced by descending air current, and the weather improves.
Antidote means “medicine to cure poison affection”, and the etymology comes from anti (opposing) and didonai (giving).
An antidote is a drug that stops the action of poison. But the number of antidotes to alleviate poison is very small. If you eat poisonous things, you should spit it with an emetic or do stomach washing. If you are bitten by poisonous organisms, let’s draw out your blood with a poison remover.
Antigen means “the cause of producing antibody”, and the etymology comes from anti (counter) and gene (birth).
An antigen is a substance that makes an antibody in the body. Bacteria and viruses invading the body are recognized as antigens and eliminated. However, when you develop allergy, the body’s immune system recognizes harmless substances as antigens. People with allergies can not eat food that becomes an antigen.
antipathyは「嫌悪感」を意味し、語源はanti（反対）とpathos（感情）に由来します。同義語はhostility, animosity, enmityです。
Antipathy means “dislike”, and the etymology comes from anti (opposite) and pathos (emotion). Synonyms are hostility, animosity, enmity. Let’s see an example sentence.
As the tax rises, people have a feeling of antipathy to the government. The bereaved families of the victims of the murder case feel antipathy to the criminal. Women feel antipathy to men who looks unclean.
antisepticは「消毒薬」を意味し、語源はanti（対抗）とseptic（腐敗）に由来します。同義語はdisinfectant, germicide, bactericideです。
Antiseptic means “a medicine to prevent infection”, and the etymology comes from anti (counter) and septic (corruption). Synonyms are disinfectant, germicide, bactericide. Let’s see an example sentence.
Antiseptic is a medical item to prevent infection by spreading on the wound. When you cut your finger with a knife, apply antiseptic to the wound. The first aid kit contains thermometers, bandages, antiseptics, bandages, analgesics and so on.
二つ目の意味は「非社交的」です。同義語はshy, bashful, timid, reserved, introvertedで、対義語はsociableです。
Antisocial means “harmful in behavior”, and the etymology comes from anti (opposite) and social. Synonyms are hostile, aggressive. Let’s see an example sentence.
Crime is an antisocial act. The country eliminates antisocial forces for the safety of citizens. Gangsters benefit from antisocial activities such as violence and extortion.
The second meaning of antisocial is “unsociable”. Synonyms are shy, bashful, timid, reserved, introverted. The antonym is sociable. An antisocial person tends to retreat to home all day on a holiday. Antisocial people are happy to be alone.
Antithesis means “to be opposite”, and the etymology comes from anti (opposite) and thesis (put on). Synonym is opposition.
Antithesis is used for abstract matters. Let’s see an example sentence.
The antithesis of democracy is dictatorship. The antithesis of capitalism is socialism.