この記事では語源cent（100）に関連する英単語を紹介します。

## cent /sént/ : セント

centは「基本通貨の100分の１」を意味し、語源はcentum(百)に由来します。

セントは主にアメリカやユーロ圏で使われている補助通貨です。その価値は基本通貨の100分の１です。

**Cent** means “1/100 of base currency”. The etymology comes from centum (100).

**Cent** is a fractional currency used mainly in America or Eurozone. Its value is 1/100 of base currency, and so 100 **cent** equivalent to 1 dollar or 1 euro. Let’s see American **cent** coin in this case.

In American currency, the shape of dollar is a bill, and the shape of **cent** is a coin. America has 6 kind of **cent** coin, and the 4 kinds of them have nicknames. They call 1 **cent** as penny, 5 **cent** as nickel, 10 **cent** as dime and 25 **cent** as quarter. The rest, 50 **cent** and 100 **cent** are rarely used and out of circulation.

## centigrade /sénṭəgrèɪd/ : 摂氏

centigradeは「摂氏」を意味し、語源はcenti(百)とgrade(段階)に由来します。

同義語はdegree Celsiusです。ただcentigradeは古い表現で、同じ意味のdegree Celsiusの方が使われます。

**Centigrade** means “a scale of temperature”. The etymology comes from centi (100) and grade.

The synonym is degree Celsius. However, **centigrade** is an old expression, and people usually use the synonym “degree Celsius”.

The word **“centigrade”** derived from the division from water melting point to its boiling point into 100 parts. Water become ice at ０° **centigrade** and become steam at 100° **centigrade** (pronounce one-hundred degree centigrade). Another scale of temperature is degree Fahrenheit. This scale is used in the field unrelated to science in some English countries like America or British.

## centimater /sénṭəmìːṭɚ/ : センチメートル

centimeterは「メートルの100分の１」を意味し、語源はcentum(百)とmetre(計測)に由来します。

**Centimeter** means “1/100 of meter”. The etymology comes from centum (100) and metre (measure). **Centimeter** is a unit of length, and 100 **centimeter** is equal to 1 meter. The abbreviation is “cm”. Let’s see example sentences of **centimeter.**

The average height of Japanese adult male is 170 **centimeters,** and the one of Japanese adult female is 158 **centimeters.** The average height of neonatal baby is from 45 to 52 **centimeters.** A kitchen knife 18 **cm** long is easy to use. Most of rulers on the market are 15 **centimeters** long.

## centipede /sénṭəpìːd/ : ムカデ

centipedeは「ムカデ」を意味し、語源はcentum(百)とped(足)に由来します。

**Centipede** means “a creature with many legs”. The etymology comes from centum (100) and ped (foot).

**Centipede** is an arthropod with many legs and a thin and long body. Unlike millepedes, **centipedes** have one pair of legs for one segment. **Centipedes** like warm and humid places, and in rainy season break into private houses. **Centipedes** are weak against cold and go into hibernation in winter. **Centipedes** get into shoes or bedding and bite people, and so they are thought as a vermin.

## century /séntʃ(ə)ri/ : 一世紀

centuryは「一世紀」を意味し、語源はcentum(百)に由来します。

**Century** means “the 100 years periods”. The etymology comes from centum (100). **Century** is the division of A.D. by every 100 years, and 1 **century** is equal to 100 years. **Century** stands for periods by ordinal number, and so 0 **century** does not exist. The period from A.D. 1 to 99 is 1 **century.** 2000 is the ending year of 20 **century,** and 2001 is the beginning year of 21 **century.**

## percent /pɚsént/ : パーセント

percentは「パーセント」を意味し、語源はper（通じて）とcentum(百)に由来します。原義はラテン語のper centum(100毎の)です。

**Percent** means “a unit of proportion”. The etymology comes from per (through) and centum (100). **Percent** is a unit of proportion, and consider the whole as 100. Let’s see examples of **percent.**

About 60 **percent** of adult human body consist of water. Losing 2 **percent** of the water will reduce physical ability. The proportion of old people in Japan in 2017 is 27 **precent.** It is anticipated that the proportion of elder people will become 40 **percent** in 2060. The unemployment rate of Japan in 2017 is about 3 **percent.** This rate is relatively very low among other countries.

## percentage /pɚsénṭɪdʒ/ : パーセント

percentageも「パーセント」を意味し、語源はpercent(百分率)とage(名詞化の接尾辞)に由来します。

**Percentage** means “the proportion in the basis of 100”. The etymology comes from percent and age (suffix for noun).

**Percentage** is the same meaning as percent, but has the different usage. Percent is the unit of proportion, and so used with particular numbers (such as 6 percent). On the other hand, **percentage** can be used by only itself or used with adjective except numeral. Let’s see example sentences of **percentage.**

The **percentage** of old people in Japan has been increasing year by year. The **percentage** of non-regular employee has also been increasing every year. The high **percentage** of married women have part-time job.

## percentile /pɚsénṭɑɪl/ : パーセンタイル

percentileは「パーセンタイル」を意味し、語源はpercent(百分率)とile(能力)に由来します。

パーセンタイルは、全体を100とみなし、何かを相対的に計測するための単位です。

**Percentile** means “a method for comparison”. The etymology comes from percent and ile (ability). **Percentile** is a unit to measure something relatively in the whole of 100. **Percentile** is used to measure children’s height and weight relatively or grasp your score in the test.

In the **percentile** system, 0 is a minimum, 50 is an average and 100 is a maximum. Baby with the 10 **percentile** of weight, is likely to be underweight. If you take a TOEIC test and get the 70 **percentile**, it means that your score is within the upper 30 %.