cent /sént/ : セント
Cent means “1/100 of base currency”. The etymology comes from centum (100).
Cent is a fractional currency used mainly in America or Eurozone. Its value is 1/100 of base currency, and so 100 cent equivalent to 1 dollar or 1 euro. Let’s see American cent coin in this case.
In American currency, the shape of dollar is a bill, and the shape of cent is a coin. America has 6 kind of cent coin, and the 4 kinds of them have nicknames. They call 1 cent as penny, 5 cent as nickel, 10 cent as dime and 25 cent as quarter. The rest, 50 cent and 100 cent are rarely used and out of circulation.
centigrade /sénṭəgrèɪd/ : 摂氏
同義語はdegree Celsiusです。ただcentigradeは古い表現で、同じ意味のdegree Celsiusの方が使われます。
Centigrade means “a scale of temperature”. The etymology comes from centi (100) and grade.
The synonym is degree Celsius. However, centigrade is an old expression, and people usually use the synonym “degree Celsius”.
The word “centigrade” derived from the division from water melting point to its boiling point into 100 parts. Water become ice at ０° centigrade and become steam at 100° centigrade (pronounce one-hundred degree centigrade). Another scale of temperature is degree Fahrenheit. This scale is used in the field unrelated to science in some English countries like America or British.
centimater /sénṭəmìːṭɚ/ : センチメートル
Centimeter means “1/100 of meter”. The etymology comes from centum (100) and metre (measure). Centimeter is a unit of length, and 100 centimeter is equal to 1 meter. The abbreviation is “cm”. Let’s see example sentences of centimeter.
The average height of Japanese adult male is 170 centimeters, and the one of Japanese adult female is 158 centimeters. The average height of neonatal baby is from 45 to 52 centimeters. A kitchen knife 18 cm long is easy to use. Most of rulers on the market are 15 centimeters long.
centipede /sénṭəpìːd/ : ムカデ
Centipede means “a creature with many legs”. The etymology comes from centum (100) and ped (foot).
Centipede is an arthropod with many legs and a thin and long body. Unlike millepedes, centipedes have one pair of legs for one segment. Centipedes like warm and humid places, and in rainy season break into private houses. Centipedes are weak against cold and go into hibernation in winter. Centipedes get into shoes or bedding and bite people, and so they are thought as a vermin.
century /séntʃ(ə)ri/ : 一世紀
Century means “the 100 years periods”. The etymology comes from centum (100). Century is the division of A.D. by every 100 years, and 1 century is equal to 100 years. Century stands for periods by ordinal number, and so 0 century does not exist. The period from A.D. 1 to 99 is 1 century. 2000 is the ending year of 20 century, and 2001 is the beginning year of 21 century.
percent /pɚsént/ : パーセント
Percent means “a unit of proportion”. The etymology comes from per (through) and centum (100). Percent is a unit of proportion, and consider the whole as 100. Let’s see examples of percent.
About 60 percent of adult human body consist of water. Losing 2 percent of the water will reduce physical ability. The proportion of old people in Japan in 2017 is 27 precent. It is anticipated that the proportion of elder people will become 40 percent in 2060. The unemployment rate of Japan in 2017 is about 3 percent. This rate is relatively very low among other countries.
percentage /pɚsénṭɪdʒ/ : パーセント
Percentage means “the proportion in the basis of 100”. The etymology comes from percent and age (suffix for noun).
Percentage is the same meaning as percent, but has the different usage. Percent is the unit of proportion, and so used with particular numbers (such as 6 percent). On the other hand, percentage can be used by only itself or used with adjective except numeral. Let’s see example sentences of percentage.
The percentage of old people in Japan has been increasing year by year. The percentage of non-regular employee has also been increasing every year. The high percentage of married women have part-time job.
percentile /pɚsénṭɑɪl/ : パーセンタイル
Percentile means “a method for comparison”. The etymology comes from percent and ile (ability). Percentile is a unit to measure something relatively in the whole of 100. Percentile is used to measure children’s height and weight relatively or grasp your score in the test.
In the percentile system, 0 is a minimum, 50 is an average and 100 is a maximum. Baby with the 10 percentile of weight, is likely to be underweight. If you take a TOEIC test and get the 70 percentile, it means that your score is within the upper 30 %.