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語源pre, prae (前)の英単語の意味まとめ



precede /prɪsíːd/ : 先に起こる


Precede means “to happen before something”, the etymology comes from prae (before) and cedere (go), the original meaning is praecedere (going ahead). Let’s see an example sentence. In business, thinking should precede action. Our life should precede everything else. Senility precedes death.


語源ced, cedere (行く)の英単語の意味まとめ


preclude /prɪklúːd/ : 邪魔する

precludeは「邪魔する」を意味し、語源はprae(前)とclaudere(閉じる)に由来します。同義語はprevent, disturb, interrupt, hinderです。例文を見てみましょう。夜中のバイクの騒音は私たちの睡眠を妨げます。上司の傲慢な態度は部下の仕事を妨げます。依存症は社会的成功の妨げになります。

Preclude means “to prevent something”, and the etymology comes from prae (front) and claudere (close). Synonyms are prevent, disturb, interrupt and hinder. Let’s see an example sentence. The noise of the motorcycle in the middle of the night precludes our sleep. The boss’s arrogant attitude precludes their men’s work. Addiction precludes social success.


語源clus, clude, claudere (閉じる)の英単語の意味まとめ


precocious /prəˈkəʊʃəs/ : ませた

precociousは「ませた」を意味し、語源はprae(前)とcoquere(熟する)に由来します。同義語はbe forward for one’s ageです。例文を見てみましょう。ませた子供は大人の真似をします。ませた子供は自分の知識を自慢します。

Precocious means “behaving like an adult”, the etymology comes from prae (before) and coquere (ripe). Synonym is be forward for one’s age. Let’s see an example sentence. Precocious children imitate what adults do. Precocious children proud of their knowledge.


predict /prɪdíkt/ : 予言する

predictは「予言する」を意味し、語源はprae(前)とdicere(言う)に由来し、原義はpraedicere(予知する)です。同義語はforecast, foretell, prophesyです。例文を見てみましょう。現代の技術でも未来を完全に予言することは不可能です。正確に地震を予知することは難しいです。日本の人手不足はまだ続くと予想されています。フランスの占星術師ノストラダムスは、未来を予言した本を書いたことで有名です。

Predict means “to say that something will happen”, the etymology comes from prae (before) and dicere (say), and the original is praedicere (predict). Synonyms are forecast, foretell and prophesy. Let’s see an example sentence. It is impossible to fully predict the future with modern technology. It is difficult to accurately predict an earthquake. The human labor shortage in Japan is predicted to continue. French astrologer Nostradamus is famous for writing a book that predicted the future.


predispose /prìːdɪspóʊz/ : 仕向ける


Predispose means “to make someone suffer diseases”, and the etymology comes from pre (pre) and dispose (place orderly). Let’s see an example sentence. Smoking predispose people to lung cancer. An unhealthy diet predisposes people to diabetes.


prefix /príːfɪks/ : 接頭辞


Prefix means “letters placed before the stem of a word”, and the etymology comes from prae (front) and figere (fix). The antonym is suffix, and affix includes prefix and suffix. For example, the prefix of ‘predict’ is ‘pre’ and the prefix of ‘misfortune’ is ‘mis’. Learning the meaning of some prefixes makes it easier to guess the meaning of the word.


prejudice /prédʒʊdɪs/ : 偏見


Prejudice means “unreasonable dislike for race, sex religion etc”, and the etymology comes from prae (previous) and iudicium (judgment). Synonym is bias. Let’s see an example sentence. In conservative companies, women suffer from prejudice. It is religious prejudice to equate Muslim with cult. In order to know the truth, we should gather information without prejudice. Many Japanese have prejudice against religions.


prerequisite /prìːrékwəzɪt/ : 必要条件


Prerequisite means “something needed”, and the etymology comes from pre (before) and requisite. Synonym is requirement. Let’s see an example sentence. Speaking English is prerequisite to work abroad. In Japanese universities, the second foreign language is a prerequisite subject. Health is a prerequisite for a happy life.


president /prézədənt/ 大統領


President means ‘a leader of republic’, and the etymology comes from prae (front) and sedere (sit), and the original meaning is praesidere (to superintend). Let’s see an example sentence. The President is the leader of the Republic. America, Korea and Russia are republics, so there are presidents in their respective countries. In 2017, Mr. Donald Trump became president of the United States, did not he? On the other hand, since Japan, the UK and Australia are constitutional monarchies, in each country there is a monarch at the top instead of the president.


pretext /príːtekst/ 口実


Pretext means “false reason for actions to hide truth”, the etymology comes from prae (before) and texere (weave), and the principle is praetexere (disguise). Let’s see an example sentence. A lazy employee takes a day off under the pretext of the illness. Tragedy is sometimes an pretext for war. Men take a woman to the hotel under the pretext of taking a rest.


prevent /prɪvént/ 妨げる

preventは「妨げる」を意味し、語源はprae(前)とvenire(来る)に由来します。同義語はkeep, stop, hinder, interrupt, interfereです。例文を見てみましょう。地域パトロールの目的は犯罪を防ぐことです。ワクチンは感染症の拡大を防ぎます。大声でのおしゃべりは、周りの人の作業を妨げます。豪雪は通行の妨げになります。

Prevent means “stop something from doing”, and the etymology comes from prae (front) and venire (come). Synonyms are keep, stop, hinder, interrupt and interfere. Let’s see an example sentence. The purpose of regional patrol is to prevent crime. Vaccines prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Loud chatter will prevent the people’s work. Heavy snow will prevent traffic.