語源chron (時間)の英単語の意味まとめ

2018年5月19日

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anachronism /ənˈækrənìzm/ : 時代錯誤

anachronismは「時代錯誤」を意味し、語源はana(反対)とkhronos(時間)に由来します。

原義はギリシャ語のanakhronizein(間違った時間を指す)です。同義語はobsolescenceです。

Anachronism means “outdated”. The etymology comes from ana (against) and khronos (time). The original meaning is Greek anakhronizein (refer to wrong time). The synonym is obsolescence.

Anachronism especially means to bring up outdated cultures at modern times. For example, it is anachronism to use a dot pattern for smartphone games.

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chronic /krάnɪk/ : 慢性の

chronicは「慢性の」を意味し、語源はkhronos(時間)に由来します。対義語はacute(急性の)です。

慢性疾患とは、徐々に発症して、治療にも時間がかかる病気のことです。

Chronic means “lasting for a long time”. The etymology comes from khronos (time). The antonym is acute. Chronic is often used for disease and pain. Chronic disease is a disease which develops gradually and needs a long term treatment.

The representative chronic diseases are diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. The main cause of chronic disease is a wrong lifestyle. As it is difficult to notice a symptom of chronic disease, we should regularly take a medical examination.

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chronicle /krάnɪkl/ : 年代記

chronicleは「年代記」を意味し、語源はkhronos(時間)に由来します。同義語はannalsです。

年代記は、過去の出来事を時系列で並べた歴史書です。

Chronicle means “a written record of history”. The etymology comes from khronos (time). The synonym is annals. Chronicle is a history book written about past histories in time order. Annals and chronicle are different things. Chronicle shows some events in detail, but annals has simple description, similar to a chronological table in a form.

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chronology /krənάlədʒi/ : 年代学(編年)

chronologyは「年代学」を意味し、語源はkhronos(時間)とlogy(学問)に由来します。年代学とは、過去に起きた出来事を時系列順に並べ換える学問のことです。

Chronology means “the study of time order”. The etymology comes from khronos (time) and logy (study). Chronology is the study to arrange past events in time series.

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chronograph /krάnəgr`æf/ : クロノグラフ

chronographは「クロノグラフ」を意味し、語源はkhronos(時間)とgraph(記録)に由来します。原義はギリシャ語のkhronographos(時間を記録すること)です。クロノグラフはストップウォッチ機能の付いた機械時計です。クロノグラフの時計盤には、複数の小さな文字盤があります。

Chronograph means “a watch to measure the period of time”. The etymology comes from khronos (time) and graph (record). The original meaning is Greek khronographos (recording time). Chronograph is a mechanical clock with the function of stopwatch. There is several small dials on the face of chronograph.

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chronometer /krənάməṭɚ/ : クロノメーター

chronometerは「クロノメーター」を意味し、語源はkhronos(時間)とmeter(測る)に由来します。

クロノメーターは、船の揺れや湿度変化の影響を受けずに正確な時間を刻む時計のことです。

Chronometer means “a timing device to ensure its accuracy”. The etymology comes from khronos (time) and meter (measure).

Chronometer is a clock to keep precise time without subjected to the shake of a ship or the change of temperature. In the Age of Discovery, more people made a voyage, and marine accidents also occurred frequently. In order to know the exact position on the sea, it was necessary to measure accurate longitude and latitude. Especially to calculate accurate longitude, they must know the position of the sun and the exact time. Chronometer was developed from this background.

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synchronize /síŋkrənὰɪz/ : 同時に起きる

synchronizeは「同時に起きる」を意味し、語源はsyn(一緒)とkhronos(時間)に由来します。

Synchronize means “to happen at the same time”. The etymology comes from syn (together) and khronos (time). Let’s see example sentences of synchronize.

Synchronized swimming is a competition in which swimmers make the same movement with a music and compete for its synchronism and beauty.

As an IT terminology, synchronize means “to make a particular data in several devices same”. Mac products are synchronized easily. When you synchronize your iPhone and macbook, you can use the pictures took by your iPhone in your macbook.

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Posted by むれ