語源cise, cide, caedere (切る)の英単語の意味まとめ

この記事では語源cise(切る)に関連する英単語を紹介します。

circumcision /s`ɚːkəmsíʒən/ : 割礼

circumcisionは「割礼」を意味し、語源はcircum(周り)とcaedere(切る)に由来します。原義はラテン語のcircumcidere(周囲を切る)です。

割礼は男性器の包皮を切除する風習です。

Circumcision means “cutting a skin on the top of penis”. The etymology comes from circum (around) and caedere (to cut). The original meaning is Latin circumciddere (to cut around).

Circumcision is the custom of cutting off a foreskin of male’s penis. Circumcision prevails in Judaism and Islam. In the Genesis of the Old Testament, it is written that boys should circumcise after 8 days from birth. Muslim Hadith also has a description about circumcision. Currently, it is found that circumcision is not medically beneficial and become a big burden on the body, and so less people undergo circumcision.

女子割礼は女性器の一部を切除する風習で、アフリカを中心に行われています。

Circumcision is done for not only males, but also females. Female circumcision is the custom of cutting a part of female’s reproductive organs, prevailing in mainly Africa. It is usually called Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Female circumcision is the rite of passage as an adult woman or the condition for marriage, but inflicts serious pain and various aftereffects on women. Female circumcision is violent cruelty to woman, and receives heavy criticism internationally.

 

concise /kənsάɪs/ : 簡潔な

conciseは「簡潔な」を意味し、語源はcon(強調)とcaedere(切る)に由来します。

原義はラテン語のconcidere(切り取る)で、同義語はbriefです。

Concise means “with only necessary words”. The etymology comes from con (intensive prefix) and caedere (to cut). The original meaning is Latin concidere (to cut off). The synonym is brief. Let’s see example sentences of concise.

Most readers dislike wordy sentences but likes concise ones. Smart persons make a concise explanation. Most best selling books are written with clear and concise style. A saying is the concise words that contains the teachings and knowledges of our predecessors. For example, “Seeing is Believing” is a concise proverb.

 

decide /dɪsάɪd/ : 決める

decideは「決断する」を意味し、語源はde(離れる)とcaedere(切る)に由来します。

原義はラテン語のdecidere(切り離す)です。名詞形はdecisionで、同義語はdetermine, resolveです。

Decide means “to make a judgement”. The etymology comes from de (off) and caedere (to cut). The original meaning is decidere (to cut off). The noun form is decision, and the synonyms are determine and resolve. Decide especially means make a choice after consideration. Let’s see example sentences of decide.

If a business failed, the storekeeper decide to close his store. If you join a sweatshop, you should decide to change your job early. Children should decide their own future by themselves. If children reply “Nothing has been decided yet”, it is parent’s duty to think about this together.

 

genocide /dʒénəsὰɪd/ : 集団虐殺

genocideは「集団虐殺」を意味し、語源はgenos(種族)とcaedere(切る)に由来します。同義語はethnic cleansing(民族浄化)です。

Genocide means “killing of many people”. The etymology comes from genos (human race) and caedere (to cut). The synonym is ethnic cleansing. The word “genocide” is coined by Jewish Polish lawyer and means to erase a human race or a ethnic group. Let’s see examples of genocide.

The Holocaust is the incident that Nazis conducted genocide on Jewish people during WW2, and it is a worldly famous genocide. In 1948, the Genocide Convention is adopted in the United Nations. This treaty considers a genocide as international crime and decide its prevention and punishment.

 

herbicide /(h)ˈɚːbəsὰɪd/ : 除草剤

herbicideは「除草剤」を意味し、語源はherb(草)とcaedere(切る)に由来します。同義語はweed-killerです。

除草剤は、雑草を枯らすための薬剤です。

Herbicide means “a substance to kill weeds”. The etymology comes from herb (plant) and caedere (to cut). The synonym is weed-killer. Herbicide is a chemical substance to wither weeds. Let’s see example sentences of herbicide.

Farmers spray a herbicide on their land to protect their crops from weeds. You should spray herbicide to weeds around your house. A shower-type herbicide can be used without watering down.

 

homicide /hάməsὰɪd/ : 殺人

homicideは「殺人」を意味し、語源はhomo(人)とcaedere(切る)に由来します。

原義はラテン語のhomicidium(殺人)です。同義語はmurder, manslaughterです。

Homicide means “the crime of killing people”. The etymology comes from homo (human) and caedere (to cut). The original meaning is Latin homicidium (manslaughter). The synonym is murder and manslaughter. Let’s see example sentences of homicide.

The person who killed people gets arrested for the crime of homicide and receives severe punishment. When a homicide case happens, police examine the dead and specify the cause of death.

Japan has the lowest homicide rate among developed countries. The number of reported homicide case in Japan has been decreasing annually. However, media exaggerate homicide case in report, and audiences mistakenly think that the order of Japan is getting worse.

 

incision /ɪnsíʒən/ : 切開

incisionは「切開」を意味し、語源はin(中)とcaedere(切る)に由来します。

原義はラテン語のincidere(切れ目を入れる)です。動詞形はinciseです。

Incision means “a neat cut in surgery”. The etymology comes from in (within) and caedere (to cut). The original meaning is Latin incidere (to cut in). The verb form is incise.

Incision is often used in surgery. A doctor makes an incision on an affect area of patient, and remove the focus of disease or transplant organs. In a surgery for cataract, a doctor make an incision on patient’s cornea to remove clouded lenses. A scalpel is a medical instrument to make an incision on skin, used for surgery or autopsy.

 

insecticide /ɪnséktəsὰɪd/ : 殺虫剤

insecticideは「殺虫剤」を意味し、語源はinsect(虫)とcaedere(殺す)に由来します。同義語はpesticideです。

Insecticide means “a chemical substance to kill insects”. The etymology comes from insect and caedere (to kill). The synonym is pesticide. Let’s see example sentences of insecticide.

When we cannot sleep because of the flying sound of mosquitos, we spray an insecticide in our room. Farmers also spray crops with an insecticide to remove vermin. Rachel Carson’s book “Spring of Silence” is a work that appealed to the dangers of pesticides and insecticides. Some vermin have a resistance to insecticide. Some of household insecticides are inflammable, so do not jet it to fire.

 

precise /prɪsάɪs/ : 正確な

preciseは「正確な」を意味し、語源はprae(前)とcaedere(切る)に由来します。

原義はラテン語のpraecidere(短くする)です。同義語はcorrect, accurate, exactです。

Precise means “exact and correct”. The etymology comes from prae (before) and caedere (to cut). The original meaning is praecidere (to shorten) in Latin. The synonyms are correct, accurate and exact. Let’s see example sentences of precise.

A tape measure or a ruler is a tool for precise measurement. Searching the shop where you want to go in Google Map, it shows the precise location. A bath scale shows precise human weight. Precise calculation of calorie is essential for losing the weight. A digital clock shows precise time.

 

scissors /sízɚz/ : ハサミ

scissorsは「ハサミ」を意味し、語源はラテン語のcaedere(切る)に由来します。

scissorsは常の複数形で使われ、冠詞のaは伴いません。peopleと同じ用法ですね。

Scissors means “a tool to cut something”. The etymology comes from caedere (to cut) in Latin. Scissors is always used as plural, not accompanied by the article “a”. It is the same usage as the word “people”. Let’s see example sentences of scissors.

In an art class, children cut papers with scissors to make an art work. In a barbershop, a barber cut our hair with their scissors. As scissors use leverage, you can cut various things with light power. Let’s cut nails with nail scissors as the nails grow.

 

suicide /súːəsὰɪd/ : 自殺

suicideは「自殺」を意味し、語源はsui(自分)とcaedere(切る)に由来します。原義はラテン語のsuicidium(自殺)です。

Suicide means “the act of killing oneself”. The etymology comes from sui (oneself) and caedere (to cut). The original meaning is suicidium (suicide) in Latin. Let’s see example sentence of suicide.

People who despaired of their future, decide to commit suicide. Severe depression patients attempt suicide on many occasions. Students who failed employment test of several dozen of companies and cannot get job offer, sometimes contemplate suicide. It was a problem to call potential suiciders on the Internet and commit mass suicide with carbon monoxide poisoning by briquettes.

Assisted suicide means that a doctor gives a poison substance to patient who never cure their disease to help their suicide. Japan bans assisted suicide, but Holland admit it under certain conditions. Indiscriminate suicide terrorism by muslims shook Western countries. The suicide rate of Japan is 6th in the world, very high among other developed countries.