語源ali, alt, altus (異なる)の英単語の意味まとめ

2018年2月22日

alias /ˈeɪ.li.əs/:別名

aliasは「別名」を意味し、語源はalius(別の)に由来します。同義語はpseudonym, false name, bynameです。

解説と例文

Alias means “a false name”, and the etymology comes from alius (another). The synonyms are pseudonym, false name, byname. Let’s see an example sentence.

Spy uses an alias for checking in the hotel. The con artist lives under an alias.  

Alias is also used as a computer term. Alias is a MacOS soft link, equivalent to a Windows shortcut.

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alibi /ˈæləbὰɪ/:アリバイ

alibiは「アリバイ」を意味し、語源はalius(異なる)に由来します。原義はラテン語のalibi(別のどこか)です。

解説と例文

Alibi means “proof of being not culprit”, and the etymology comes from alius (different). The original meaning is Latin alibi (somewhere else).

An alibi is a proof that a certain person was not in the scene when the incident occurred. Alibi is an important clue to identify the criminal. A suspect who can prove alibis is unlikely to be a culprit. However, in detective stories, the culprit makes a fake alibi with tricks. Detective broke fake alibi by reasoning, witness testimony and evidence.

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alien /ˈeɪ.li.ən/:異質な、外国人の

alienは「異質な、外国人の」を意味し、語源はalienus(他に属する)に由来します。同義語はstrange, oddです。

解説と例文

Alien means “different from what you get used to”, and the etymology comes from alienus (belonging to others). The synonyms are strange and odd.

Alien means that the environment is quite different from the previous one and can not be accepted. Let’s see an example sentence.

The lives of the poor are alien to rich people. People just after changing jobs feel confused about the alien working environment. Internet is alien to the elderly people. Children adapt quickly to alien surroundings.

The second meaning of alien is “foreigners” and synonyms are foreign.

It is mainly used as a term of law and administration. Since alien has strong administrative nuances, in daily conversation, we express it as “people from other countries”. Let’s see example sentences.

Alien residents are staying from the country with an entry permit. Illegal aliens are illegally staying in that country. The alien registration card was abolished in Japan in 2012, and now residence cards are spreading instead.

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alienate /éɪliənèɪt/:孤立させる

alienateは「孤立させる」を意味し、語源はalius(異なる)に由来します。同義語はisolateです。

解説と例文

Alienate means “to isolate”, and the etymology comes from alius (different). The synonym is isolate.

Alienate means that certain people become uncomfortable within the group. Let’s see an example sentence.

Those who do domineering behavior alienates their friends. An idol scandal alienates her fans. Insensitive person will be alienated from the group. Not communicative person is alienated from his company. Neet and shut-in are alienated from society.

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alter /ˈɔːltɚ/:変える

alterは「変える」を意味し、語源はalter(異なる)に由来します。同義語はchangeです。

同音異義語のaltar(祭壇)と混同しないようにしましょう。

解説と例文

Alter means “to change”, and the etymology comes from alter (different). The synonym is change.

Do not confuse it with altar of homophone. Let’s see an example sentence.

The Internet dramatically altered our lives. Whatever the politician defines, nothing can alter the fact that Japan’s declining birthrate and elderly population is progressing. Even if you make a mistake in delivery by online shopping, you can alter it immediately. Ten years have passed and the old cityscape totally altered.

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alternate /ˈɔːltɚnət/:交互の

alternateは「交互の」を意味し、語源はalter(片方)に由来します。日常会話ではevery other (day, week, Monday)の方が使われます

解説と例文

Alternate means “turn by turn”, and the etymology comes from alter (one side).

However, every other (day, week, Monday) is used in everyday conversation. Let’s see an example sentence.

People with low physical strength work on alternate days. People with ambition go to the English conversation circle on alternate weeks. Some municipalities collect coarse garbage on alternate Mondays. Alternate is used in the fields of math and computer.

Junior high school students learn corresponding angles and alternate angles in mathematics class. Alt on the keyboard stands for alternate key.

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alternative /ɔːltˈɚːnəṭɪv/:代わりの、従来とは異なる

alternativeは「代わりの」を意味し、語源はalter(片方)に由来します。原義はラテン語のalternare(交代で行う)で、同義語はsubstitute, alternateです。

二つ目の意味は「従来とは異なる」で、対義語はconventionalです。

解説と例文

Alternative means “can be used instead”, and the etymology comes from alter (one side). The original meaning is Latin alternare (done in turn). Synonyms are substitute, alternate. Let’s see an example sentence.

When planning a picnic or athletic meet, you should also set an alternative date in case of rain. When the road is closed, the car navigation system instructs us an alternative route. If you deny the opponent’s plan, you should prepare an alternative plan.

The second meaning of alternative is “different from conventional”. The opposite term is conventional. Let’s see an example sentence.

Developed countries are looking for alternative energy to replace fossil fuels. With the spread of the Internet, alternative ways of life like bloggers, affiliate earner and YouTuber became possible. Massage, acupuncture and moxibustion, aromatherapy etc are classified as alternative medicine.

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altruism /ˈæltruìzm/:利他主義

altruismは「利他主義」を意味し、語源はalter(異なる)とism(考え方)に由来します。対義語はegoismです。

解説と例文

Altruism means “helping for others”, and the etymology comes from alter (different) and ism (way of thinking). The opposite term is egoism.

Altruism means a way of thinking to help other people regardless of their own interests. Let’s see an example sentence.

We practice altruism by helping others in trouble before us. Reciprocal (or mutual) altruism is to help others without expecting immediate return, expecting long-term return. Simply put, it is to help people who are in trouble and scratch their back.

Reciprocal altruism is used in behavioral economics and game theory. A representative example of reciprocal altruism is the blood exchange of vampire bat. A generous bat can be helped in a pinch, but a stingy bat will be kicked out of herd.

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語源

Posted by むれ