語源capit (頭)の英単語の意味まとめ

2018年7月19日

おすすめ英語教材

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achieve /ətʃíːv/ : 達成する

achieveは「達成する」を意味し、語源はad(方向)とcaput(頭)に由来します。

原義はラテン語のad caput(頂上に達する)です。同義語はaccomplish, attain, fulfillです。

Achieve means “to successfully complete something”, the etymology comes from ad (direction) and caput (head). The original meaning is Latin ad caput (reaches the summit). Its synonyms are accomplish, attain, fulfill.

Achieve means to get good results with difficulty, mainly taking success, result, goal as an object. Since “achieve” is a formal expression, “get” is used in everyday English.

Let’s see an example sentence of achieve. To achieve the dream of becoming a famous singer, they need a lot of effort. To achieve the goal of economic independence, we need the correct knowledge of money, because we can not save money while wasting it. Idols go on a diet and smile at everyone, and finally achieve the stardom. A salesperson makes an effort to achieve sales targets.

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cap /kˈæp/ : 帽子

capは「帽子」を意味し、語源はcaput(頭)に由来します。

同義語のhatは麦わら帽子やシルクハットのように周囲につばがあるのに対し、capは前の部分にだけつばがあります。

Cap means “a kind of hat”, and the etymology comes from caput (head). Its synonym “hat” has collars around itself like straw hat and silk hat, while cap has brim only on the front.

Let’s see example sentences of cap. Baseball players and their managers wear a baseball cap during the game. We also wear a cap to prevent heat stroke in the summer. You have to take off your cap indoors. Many hospitals abolish nurse cap from a hygiene point of view.

People, who do not want to get their hair wet with a bath, will wear a shower cap. Police officers and soldiers wear a regulation cap as a part of the uniform. People wear a swimming cap to swim in a pool.

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cape /keɪp/ : 岬

capeは「岬」を意味し、語源はcaput(頭)に由来します。同義語はpromontoryとheadlandです。

岬は海から突き出た陸地の先端部分です。

Cape means “an area of the land sticking out”, and the etymology comes from caput (head). Its synonyms are promontory and headland. Cape is the tip of the land projecting from the sea. Since a cape becomes an obstacle to the operation of the ship at night, lighthouses are commonly built there. By the way, Cape of Good Hope means the cape in Cape Town, Republic of South Africa.

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capillary /kˈæpəlèri/ : 毛細血管

capillaryは「毛細血管」を意味し、語源はcapillaris(毛の)に由来し、その語源もcaput(頭)に由来します。

Capillary means “smallest blood vessel in your body”, the etymology comes from capillaris (hair), and this etymology also comes from caput (head).

A capillary is a thin blood vessel connecting an artery and a vein. The main role of capillaries is to carry nutrients and waste products.

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capital /kˈæpəṭl/ : 首都、資本金、大文字

capitalは「首都、資本金、大文字」を意味し、語源はcapitalis(頭の)に由来します。

The original meaning of capital is “relating to the head”, it roughly divides into three meanings. The etymology comes from capitalis (head). The first meaning of capital is “a center city of a country”. Capital means the city where the central government exists. The capital is literally the head of the country. For example the capital city of Greece is Athens, the capital of the Netherlands is Amsterdam. By the way, when asking for the capital name use what, not where.

The second meaning of capital is “money for business”. Capital is the money you use to start a business. Capital becomes the “head” of business. For example, if you have a real store you need a capital of several million yen, but if you start an Internet business, you do not need much capital.

The third meaning of capital is “larger letters”, and the synonym is upper case. Capital letters are the letters to be the “head” of sentences. In English there is a rule that you begin the sentence with capital letters.

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capitalism /kˈæpəṭəlìzm/ : 資本主義

capitalismは「資本主義」を意味し、語源はcapital(資本)とism(学説)に由来します。

資本主義とは、個人や企業が生産手段を所有する経済システムのことです。

Capitalism means “a kind of economic system”, and the etymology comes from capital (capital) and ism (theory). Capitalism is the economic system in which individuals and companies own production means. In the capitalist economy, we can work to earn money, save money, buy and sell goods and services.

However, as capitalism goes far, the economical gap will widen and the number of poor people  will increase. Modified capitalism is an economic system in which a large government relieves the economically weak. Communism, which is the opposite concept of capitalism, is an economic system in which everyone own all means of production and aim for an equal society.

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capitulate /kəpítʃʊlèɪt/ : 負けを認める

capitulateは「負けを認めること」を意味し、語源はcapitulum(小さい頭)に由来します。同義語はsurrenderとgive inです。capitulateの例文を見てみましょう。親は子どものわがままに屈してはいけません。政府や警察はテロリストの要求に折れることもあります。

Capitulate means “to accept defeat”, and the etymology comes from capitulum (small head). Its synonyms are surrender and give in. Let’s see an example sentence of capitulate. Parents should not capitulate in children’s selfishness. Governments and police sometimes capitulate at the request of terrorists.

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captain /kˈæptən/ : 船長

captainは「船長」を意味し、語源はcaput(頭)に由来します。船長とは、船主の代わりに船と船員を指揮する人のことです。船長には、乗客と貨物を安全に目的地まで運べるように、船員を管理する義務があります。船長は非常に強い権限を持っており、非常時には乗客に命令を出すこともできます。気象や海の状況に応じて船の進路を決めたり、出入港するときに船の指揮をとったりするのも、船長の仕事です。

Captain means “a sailor at the top”, and the etymology comes from caput (head). A captain is a person who directs a ship and crew on behalf of the ship owner. The captain has an obligation to manage the crew so that passengers and cargo can be safely carried to the destination. A captain has a very strong authority and can issue orders to passengers in case of emergency. It is also the task of the captain to decide the course of the ship according to the weather and the situation of the ocean, or to conduct a ship when entering or leaving the port.

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chapter /tʃˈæptɚ/ : 章

chapterは「章」を意味し、語源はcapitulum(小さい頭)に由来します。章は、本の分割方法の一つで、段落よりも大きいです。例えば新書なら一つの章を読み終えるのに10分程度ですみますが、長編小説の一章を読むのには数時間かかります。国語の授業では先生が生徒に教科書の一つの章を朗読させます。またchapterは法律用語としても使われます。Chapter11はアメリカ合衆国連邦倒産法の第11章を指します。アメリカの会社は倒産するときChapter11を申請するのです。

Chapter means “a division of a book”, and the etymology comes from capitulum (small head). The chapter is one of the division methods of the book, it is larger than the paragraph. For example, reading one chapter in paperback takes only ten minutes, but it takes several hours to read a chapter of a long novel. In Japanese classes, the teacher makes students read one chapter of textbooks. Chapter is also used as a legal term. Chapter 11 refers to Chapter 11 of the Federal Bankruptcy Act of the United States of America. An American company applies for Chapter 11 when going bankrupt.

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chef /ʃéf/ : シェフ

chefは「シェフ」を意味し、語源はcaput(頭)に由来します。

Chef means “a head cook”, the etymology comes from caput (head). The chef is the top cook who controls the kitchen. The job of the chef is to manage other cooks and devise new menus. A chef manages the restaurant overall, and so he has a great authority and heavy responsibility. If other cooks make a mistake, the chef must take responsibility.

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chief /tʃíːf/ : 長

chiefは「組織の長」を意味し、語源はcaput(頭)に由来します。

Chief means “the head of the organization”, and the etymology comes from caput (head).

Every organization needs a chief who controls it. For example, the police chief is responsible for the police station and manages other police staff. The fire chief is responsible for the fire station and oversees its operations. The chief priest is a priest who controls a temple. The chief inspector is one of the ranks of the policeman, below the police superintendent, above the inspector. (for more detail, see here)

The chief (or presiding) judge ‘s job is to direct the case and hearings and to give judgment. Chief Executive Officer (CEO), as a top of a company, will oversee all operations of the company. Chief Operating Officer (COO), Chief Administrative Officer (CAO), Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Chief Legal Officer (CLO) work under the CEO.

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decapitate /dɪkˈæpətèɪt/ : 斬首する

decapitateは「斬首する」を意味し、語源はde(離す)とcaput(頭)に由来します。同義語はbeheadです。斬首刑は、罪人の頭部を刃物で切断する刑罰のことです。斬首刑は火刑や磔の刑に比べると苦痛が少ないので、比較的軽い刑罰でした。ただ執行人の腕が未熟だと、首を一撃で切断することができず、受刑者をいたずらに苦しめることになります。そこでジョセフ・ギヨタンの提言により、フランスでは死刑の方法としてギロチンを採用することにしました。ギロチンにより、受刑者を苦痛なく斬首することが可能になりました。

Decapitate means “to cut off someone’s head”, and the etymology comes from de (off) and caput (head). Its synonym is behead. Decapitation (or beheading) is a punishment that cuts off the criminal’s head with a knife. Decapitation was relatively light punishment because it is less painful than burning at a stake or crucifixion. However, if the executioner’s skill is immature, they cannot decapitate criminal’s heads with a single blow, which suffers the prisoner unnecessarily. Therefore, according to Joseph Guillotan’s suggestion, France decided to adopt guillotine as a method of death penalty. Guillotine enabled them to decapitate criminal’s head painlessly.

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mischief /místʃɪf/ : いたずら

mischiefは「いたずら」を意味し、語源はmes(悪い)とcaput(頭)に由来します。同義語はtrick, prankです。mischiefの例文を見てみましょう。親は公共の場で子供がいたずらをしないようにするべきです。子供がいたずらをするのは周囲の目を引くためと言われています。やんちゃな子供はいつもいたずらをしています。男の子は好きな女の子にいたずらをしたがるものです。mischievousはmischiefの形容詞形です。

Mischief means “bad behavior of children”, and the etymology comes from mes (bad) and caput (head). Its synonyms are trick, prank. Let’s see example sentences of mischief. Parents should keep their children out of mischief in public places. It is said that children make mischief to attract people around. A naughty child are always up to mischief. Boys want to play mischief on their favorite girls. Mischievous is an adjective form of mischief.

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precipitate /prɪsípətèɪt/ : 沈殿物

precipitateは「沈殿物」を意味し、語源もprae(前)とcaput(頭)に由来します。原義はラテン語のprarcipitare(真っ逆さまに落ちる)です。同義語はdeposit, sedimentです。沈殿物は、液体の底に溜まった固体物のことです。沈殿は溶液から物質を分離する方法として使われます。例えば塩水を熱すると、飽和度が上昇し、溶けきれなくなった塩が沈殿します。

Precipitate means “substances at the bottom of the liquid”, and the etymology comes from prae (front) and caput (head). The original meaning is the Latin prarcipitare (falling down headlong). Its synonyms are deposit and sediment. A precipitate is a solid matter that accumulates in the bottom of a liquid. Precipitation is used as a method to separate substances from solution. For example, when salt water is heated, the degree of saturation rises and salt that is not dissolved precipitates.

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