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語源prov, prob, proof (証明)の英単語の意味まとめ



approve /əprúːv/ : 賛成する、承認する

approveは「賛成する」を意味し、語源はad(方向)とprobare(試す)に由来します。同義語はagree, supportで、名詞形はapprovalです。approveは自動詞で、前置詞のofと一緒に使われます。例文を見てみましょう。タバコが嫌いな人は飲食店での禁煙化に賛成します。リベラルで革新的な人は新しい取り組みに簡単に賛成します。厳格な親は娘が非正規社員と結婚することに賛成しません。

approveの二つ目の意味は「承認する」で、同義語はpass, consent, ratify, rubber-stamp, permitです。この意味でのapproveは他動詞になり、前置詞のofは付きません。例文を見てみましょう。不況になり財政が圧迫されると、増税法案が簡単に承認されます。有能な社員は上司の承認を簡単に得て、大きな仕事をこなします。子供は遠い場所に出かける場合、親の許可を得るべきです。保守的な会社では、社員は社長の承認がないと仕事ができません。

Approve means “to agree”, and the etymology comes from ad (direction) and probare (try). Synonyms are agree, support, and its noun form is approval. Approve is an intransitive verb, used with the preposition “of”. Let’s see an example sentence. People who dislike cigarettes approve of prohibition of smoking at restaurants. Liberal and innovative people easily approve of new approaches. Strict parents do not approve of that their daughter marries a non-regular employee.

The second meaning of approve is “to accept”, its synonyms are pass, consent, ratify, rubber-stamp and permit. Approve in this sense becomes a transitive verb, and not following the preposition “of”. Let’s see an example sentence. If the economy is depressed and the fiscal pressure are pressured, the tax increase bill will be easily approved. Competent employees easily get approval from their boss and do big work. Children should get parental approval when going out to distant places. In conservative companies, employees can not work unless approved by the president.


fireproof /fáɪɚprùf/ : 耐火性の


Fireproof means “resistant to fire”, the origin is derived from fire and proof (tested power), and the synonym is fire-resistant. Let’s see an example sentence. Brick is a highly fireproofed material. For passenger aircraft, they can not use materials with low fire-proof. People working in a workplace that handles fire are wearing fireproof clothing. Valuables should be kept in fireproof safe.


foolproof /fúlprùf/ : 確実に成功する


Foolproof means “certain to be successful”, and the etymology comes from fool (fool) and proof (tested force). Let’s see example sentences. The malicious FX affiliate site sells information teaching materials of a foolproof way of FX at a high price. Google’s automatic translation is not absolutely foolproof, but it saves a lot of translation effort. Now the washing machine is a foolproof machine, even children can operate. Foolproof way of earning money is unreliable. Consumption tax is a foolproof way of paying taxes. Since the iPhone is a foolproof smartphone, many people use it. Now you can purchase iPhone cheaply on Amazon.


probably /prάbəbli/ : おそらく

probablyは「おそらく」を意味し、語源はprobare(試す)に由来します。同義語はlikely, perhaps, maybe, possiblyです。例文を見てみましょう。勤勉な人はおそらく経済的に成功します。ギャンブルが原因でも自己破産はできるらしいです。このまま日本で人手不足が進めば、おそらくブラック企業が消滅するでしょう。人間関係の悩みがない人は十中八九幸せになれます。

Probably means “likely to happen”, and the etymology comes from probare (try). Synonyms are likely, perhaps, maybe, possibly. Let’s see an example sentence. Diligent people probably succeed economically. It is probably that self-insolvency is possible due to gambling. If this shortage of manpower progresses in Japan, the sweatshop will probably disappear. People who do not suffer from human relationships can be probably happy.


probate /próʊbeɪt/ : 遺言の検認


Probate means “a proof that a will is genuine”, and the etymology comes from prove. Probate is that the family court confirms the contents of the will in front of the heirs. The purpose of probate is to prevent counterfeiting of the will. The heir can not change the registration of real estate or the name of deposit without conducting probate.


probation /prəʊbéɪʃən/ : 保護観察


Probation means “a system to observe criminals”, and the etymology comes from probare (try). Probation is a system for rehabilitating criminals or juvenile delinquents. Probation is conducted by probation officers and volunteer probation officers. The probation officer is a national civil servant working at a probation office, but the number is very small. Therefore, as a volunteer, the volunteer probation officer will grasp the living conditions of the target person and provide guidance. Basically, a boy who committed a misdemeanor receives probation.


probe /prˈəʊb/ : 問いただす、探針、探査機

probeは「問いただす」を意味し、語源はprobare(試す)に由来します。同義語はinvestigate, examine, interrogateです。例文を見てみましょう。刑事は事件の詳細を徹底的に探り、犯人を逮捕します。私たちは仕事仲間にプライベートなことを追求するべきではありません。


Probe means “to question”, and the etymology comes from probare (try). Synonyms are investigate, examine, interrogate. Let’s see an example sentence. The detective probe the details of the incident thoroughly, and arrests the criminal. We should not probe private things to colleagues.

Probe is also used for medical and space surveys. The probe for medical use is a tool for exploring injured parts, and the tip is needle of metal. Space probes are the spacecrafts sent out to investigate other celestial objects, many of which are drone units. The asteroid probe “Hayabusa” succeeded in collecting a sample of the asteroid Itokawa.


proof /prúːf/ : 証拠

proofは「証拠」を意味し、語源はprobare(正しさを証明する)に由来します。同義語はevidence, testimonyです。例文を見てみましょう。犯罪事件が発生すると、刑事は証拠を探します。検察官が犯人を起訴するには明確な証拠が必要です。銀行口座を開設するには、身元を証明するものが必要です。買った商品を返品するには、レシートなどの購入の証明が必要です。防犯カメラは誰かが万引きをする証拠を記録してくれます。いたずらの証拠を掴みたいなら、防犯カメラを設置しましょう。

Proof means “evidence” and the etymology comes from probare (prove correctness). Synonyms are evidence and testimony. Let’s see an example sentence. When a criminal case occurs, the detective looks for the proof. Prosecutors need clear proof to prosecute the perpetrator. To open a bank account, you need a proof of your identity. Proof of purchase such as receipt etc. is necessary to return goods bought. Security cameras record proof that someone shoplifts. If you want to grasp proof of mischief, let’s install a security camera.


proofreading : 校正


Proofreading means “modification of writings”, the etymology comes from proof (a copy of writing) and reader. Proofreading is to correct print mistakes before publication. Major publishers and newspaper companies have departments specializing in proofreading. For medium and small publishers, authors and editors may perform proofreading. Also, Microsoft Word has a function to proofread sentences. Beginners of a blog should use proofing tools. By proofreading the sentences, it is possible to create easy-to-read sentences.


prove /prúːv/ : 証明する

proveは「証明する」を意味し、語源はprobare(良いと示す)に由来します。同義語はshow, testify, establish, demonstrate, certifyです。proveは情報や事実を提示して、何かが正しいと示すことを意味します。例文を見てみましょう。私たちは運転免許証や学生証、パスポートで自分の身分を証明します。弁護士は被告人の無罪を証明しようとし、検察官は被告人の有罪を証明しようとします。科学者は多くの実験や調査により理論を証明します。宝くじシミュレーターは、宝くじを買っても絶対にお金持ちになれないことを証明します。優れた本はデータや調査で自分の主張を証明します。

Prove means “to show correctness”, and the etymology comes from probare (indicating good). Synonyms are show, testify, establish, demonstrate and certify. Prove means that something is correct by showing information and facts. Let’s see an example sentence. We will prove our identity with our driver’s license, student ID card or passport. The attorney attempts to prove the innocence of the accused and the prosecutor attempts to prove the accused’s guilty. Scientists prove the theory through many experiments and investigations. The lottery simulator proves that we can never get rich even if we buy a lottery. Excellent books prove its claim with data and survey.


waterproof /wˈɔːṭɚprùːf/ : 防水の


Waterproof means “not allowing water to enter”, and the etymology comes from water and proof (tested power). Let’s see an example sentence. Diving wear a waterproof watch and carry a waterproof smartphone. You should wear a waterproof jacket during the rainy season. If you put the smartphone in the waterproof case, you can use it in the bath. By placing a waterproof spray on shoes, you can prevent socks from getting wet on rainy days.