語源prehend, prise (掴む)の英単語の意味まとめ


apprehend /`æprɪhénd/ : 逮捕する

apprehendは「逮捕する」を意味し、語源はad(方向)とprehendere(掴む)に由来します。同義語はarrest, catchです。逮捕とは、犯罪に関する被疑者を身体的に拘束することです。警察が被疑者を逮捕するのは、逃亡や証拠隠滅を防ぐためです。逮捕には、通常逮捕、緊急逮捕、現行犯逮捕の3種類があります。逮捕は基本的に裁判所の発行した逮捕状に基づいて行われます。

Apprehend means “to arrest”, and the etymology comes from ad (direction) and prehendere (grasp). Synonyms are arrest and catch. Apprehension is to physically detain suspects on crime. The police apprehends the suspects to prevent escape and evasion. There are three types of apprehension, normal arrest, emergency arrest and arrest of red-handed. Apprehension is basically based on arrest warrants issued by the courts.


apprentice /əprénṭɪs/ : 見習い

apprenticeは「見習い」を意味し、語源はapprehendere(掴む)に由来します。同義語はapprenticeship, leaner, prenticeです。例文を見てみましょう。新人の美容師は見習いとして美容院で働きます。大工見習いは親方の仕事ぶりをじっくりと観察します。


Apprentice means “someone who learns skill or job”, and the etymology comes from apprehendere (grasping). Synonyms are apprenticeship, leaner and prentice. Let’s see an example sentence. A rookie hairdresser works as an apprentice at a beauty salon. The carpentry apprentice will carefully observe the work of the master.

Apprentice is also used for the name of music and movie. “Sorcerer’s Apprentice” is an orchestral piece composed by French composer Paul Ducasse. The name of the third act of Disney’s feature film “Fantasia” is also “Sorcerer’s Apprentice”.


comprehend /kὰmprɪhénd/ : 理解する

comprehendは「難しいことを理解する」を意味し、語源はcom(完全に)とprehendere(掴む)に由来します。同義語はgrasp, understandです。comprehendはしばしば否定文で使われ、進行形にはなりません。また日常会話ではcomprehendよりunderstandの方が使われます。例文を見てみましょう。子供は抽象的な事柄を理解できません。哲学は大人でも理解するのが難しい学問です。社会問題を完全に理解することは難しく、民衆はしばしば的外れな意見を言います。

Comprehend means “to understand difficult things”, and the etymology comes from com (perfect) and prehendere (grasp). The synonym is grasp and understand. Comprehend is often used in negative sentences, and it does not become progressive. In everyday conversation, understand is more often used than comprehend. Let’s see an example sentence. Children can not comprehend abstract things. Philosophy is an academic difficult even for adults to comprehend. It is difficult to fully comprehend social problems, and the public often have a wrong opinion.


comprise /kəmprάɪz/ : 構成する

compriseは「構成する」を意味し、語源はラテン語のcomprehendere(掴む)に由来します。同義語はconsist, compose, make upです。compriseは受け身で使うときは、前置詞のofを伴います。これはbe made up of, be composed ofと同じですね。例文を見てみましょう。成人の体の60%は水分で構成されています。総合大学はたくさんの学部から成り立っています。大企業は多数の労働者で構成されています。アパートはたくさんの部屋で構成されています。

Comprise means “to include particular parts”, and the etymology comes from Latin comprehendere (grasping). Synonyms are consist, compose and make up. When used in the passive, “comprise” is accompanied by the preposition “of”. This is the same as “be made up of” or “be composed of”. Let’s see an example sentence. 60% of adult body is comprised of moisture. The university comprises many undergraduates. Large enterprises are comprised of a large number of workers. The apartment comprises many rooms.


enterprise /énṭɚprὰɪz/ : 企業

enterpriseは「企業」を意味し、語源はenter(間)とprehendere(掴む)に由来し、原義はentreprendre(引き受ける)です。同義語はcompany, organization, businessです。例文を見てみましょう。AmazonやGoogleなどの多国籍企業は全世界にビジネスを展開しています。少子化で労働人口が減少すると、中小企業は人材の確保に苦労します。かつては日本にも多くの国営企業が存在していました。

Enterprise means “a company”, the etymology comes from enter (between) and prehendere (grasp), and the original meaning is entreprendre (to undertake). Synonyms are company, organization and business. Let’s see an example sentence. Multinational enterprise such as Amazon and Google are developing business all over the world. When the labor force decreases with a declining birthrate, SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) have difficulty having human resources. There used to be many state enterprises in Japan once.


imprison /ɪmprízn/ : 投獄する


Imprison means “to put someone into prison”, the etymology comes from in (middle) and prison (prison). The etymology of prison is prehendere (grabbing). Let’s see an example sentence. The government imprisons a suspected terrorist. Mules may be imprisoned with drug possession.


predator /prédəṭɚ/ : 捕食者


Predator means “an animal that eats other animals”, and the etymology comes from prey (to kill and eat). The etymology of the “prey” is prehendere (grasping). The noun form is predation and the adjective form is predatory. The antonym of predator is prey. Let’s see an example sentence. For pigs and cows, humans are predators. The relationship between predators and prey maintains a good food chain. For example, if the number of predator cats decreases, there is a danger that a large number of mouse rats will be generated.


prehensile /prɪhénsl/ : ものを掴める


Prehensile means “to grasp things”, and the etymology comes from Latin prehendere (grasp). Let’s see an example sentence. Some monkeys have a prehensile tail, and elephants have a long prehensile nose.


prey /pɹeɪ/ : 獲物、捕食する


Prey means “an animal hunted by other animals”, and the etymology comes from prehendere (grasping). Synonym is predator, and it is the homonym of “pray”. Let’s see an example sentence. If carnivorous animals can not catch prey, they will starves to death. Cheetah is good at chasing prey. Herbivorous animals always watch their surroundings so as not to be preyed. Eagles, hawks, falcons, vultures, condors and owls are classified as birds of prey. Characteristics of birds of prey are sharp nails and beaks.


prison /prízn/ : 刑務所


Prison means “a building for punishment”, the etymology comes from prehendere (catching), and the synonym is jail. Let’s see an example sentence. Criminals are put in prison and are released from prison after penal servitude. An acquaintance of a criminal visits a prison to meet a criminal. The murderer will be subject to a prison sentence of more than ten years. Breaking prison in Japan is quite difficult. Prison birds must live in a prison cell. The job of prison guard is to manage prisoners.


reprehensible /rèprɪhénsəbl/ : 非難に値する


Reprehensible means “deserving condemnation”, and the etymology comes from reprehend (to accuse). The etymology of reprehend is re (back) and prehendere (grab). Synonym is blameworthy. Let’s see an example sentence. Adult bullying is a reprehensible act. Criminal acts are reprehensible.


surprise /sɚprάɪz/ : 驚き、驚かす

surpriseは「驚き」を意味し、語源はsur(上)とprehendere(捕まえる)に由来し、原義は「奇襲」です。同義語はshock, astonishment, wonder, amazementです。例文を見てみましょう。友達に内緒でサプライズパーティーを開くことは、その友人にとって思いがけない嬉しい出来事です。いきなりクラッカーを鳴らせば、驚いた友人は「びっくりしたよ」と言うでしょう。

surpriseは動詞としても使われ、同義語はamaze, astonish, astound, startleです。例えばお金持ちは意外と質素な生活をしているという事実に多くの人は驚くでしょう。大きな音は周囲の人をびっくりさせます。

Surprise means “astonishment”, the etymology is derived from sur (over) and prehendere (catch), and the original is “surprise attack”. Synonyms are shock, astonishment, wonder and amazement. Let’s see an example sentence. Opening a surprise party secretly by a friend is a surprising and unexpected event for that friend. If you suddenly raise the cracker, a surprised friend will say “What a surprise.”

Surprise is also used as a verb, and its synonyms are amaze, astonish, astound and startle. For example, many people will be surprised at the fact that rich people live a simple life unexpectedly. Loud sounds will surprise people around.


語源sur (上)の英単語の意味まとめ