語源cav, caven, cavare (空洞)の英単語の意味まとめ



cave /kéiv/ : 洞窟


Cave means “a large natural hole in the side of cliff”, and the etymology comes from cavus (hollow) in Latin. The synonyms are cavern and grotto. The word “cavern” means a large cave. Let’s see example sentences of cave. Primitive people used to live in a cave. Some caves leave cave paintings. Most cave fish are blinded with their eyes covered in their skin. A naughty child go caving at the sea. Sightseers go on a cave tour at the hot day in the summer. We can see limestones like icicles in a limestone cave.

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cavity /kˈævəṭi/ : 空洞、虫歯

cavityは「空洞」を意味し、語源はcavus(空洞)に由来します。同義語はhole, hollow, pitです。cavityは医療分野の専門用語として使われます。人体には複数の穴があります。口腔は消化器官の先端に位置しており、食物を取り入れて分断する役割があります。鼻腔は人体の空気の通り道です。またcavity単体では「虫歯」を意味します。毎日歯を磨いている人は大抵虫歯がありません。虫歯があるなら、すぐに歯医者に行きましょう。虫歯が小さければ、治療は虫歯を詰めるだけですみます。cavityは建築の分野でも使われます。中空壁とは壁と壁のすき間の空間のことで、断熱材・配管・電線が入っています。

Cavity means “a hole inside something”, and the etymology comes from cavus (hollow). The synonyms are hole, hollow and pit. Cavity is used as terminology in the medical field. A human body has several cavities. A mouth cavity is located at the top of digestive organs, and has a role of taking and dividing foods. A nasal cavity is the path of the air in a human body. Cavity itself means “a tooth decay”. Most people who brush their teeth every day, have no cavity. If you have a cavity, go to the dentist at once. In the case of a small cavity, the treatment is only filling it. Cavity is also used in the field of architecture. Cavity wall is the area between walls, in which there are insulation materials, piping and electric wires.

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concave /kὰnkéɪv/ : 凹状(おうじょう)


Concave means “curved inward in the middle”, and the etymology comes from con (intensive) and cavus (hollow). The original meaning is concavus (curved) in Latin. The antonym is convex. Concave is often used for lenses or mirrors. Concave lenses are used for lenses of glasses for a near-sighted. Concave lenses have the effect of diffusing light, and adjust the sight of near-sighted persons. By the way, convex lenses are used for loupes or reading glasses. Concave mirrors reflect magnified mirror images and used as bathroom mirrors.

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excavate /ékskəvèɪt/ : 発掘する

excavateは「発掘する」を意味し、語源はex(外)とcavare(掘る)に由来します。原義はラテン語のexcavare(掘り出す)です。同義語はdig, make a hole, burrow, plowです。excavateは考古学でよく使われます。発掘は、研究のために地下に埋もれた化石や遺跡を掘り出すことで、考古学の基本的作業です。考古学者が恐竜の化石を発掘したら、大きなニュースになります。もちろんexcavateは他の文脈でも使えます。亀は土を掘って、穴の中に卵を入れます。油圧ショベルは土を掘るための建設機械です。

Excavate means “to make a hole”, and its etymology comes from ex (out) and cavere (to dig). The original meaning is excavere (to hollow out) in Latin. The synonyms are dig, make a hole, burrow and plow. Excavate is often used in archaeology. Excavation is the act of digging up fossils and ruins underground for the purpose of research, and it is the basic work of archaeology. If an archaeologist excavate a dinosaur fossil, it will become a big news. Of course, we can use “excavate” in other contexts. Turtles excavate the soil and lay eggs in a hole. Hydraulic excavator is one of construction machinery to excavate soil.

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