catacomb /kˈæṭəkòʊm/ : 地下墓地
Catacomb means “underground graveyard”. The etymology comes from cata (among) and tumba (tomb).
It originally means a place to bury Christians that were persecuted and died for a religious cause in Ancient Rome. Now it means a cave or a underground in general to bury the dead.
The most famous catacomb is the Italian Capuchin monks Cemetery where many people go on a sightseeing every year. In a catacomb, the entire walls are covered with many bones of martyrs. This is the technique to bury them in a small area efficiently. The wall of crammed bones makes us feared.
cataclysm /kˈæṭəklìzm/ : 大変動
原義はギリシャ語のkataklyzein(大洪水)です。同義語はdisaster, catastrophe, calamityです。
Cataclysm means “violent and sudden change”. The etymology comes from kata (down) and klyzein (to wash). The original meaning is Greek kataklyzein (deluge). The synonyms are disaster, catastrophe and calamity.
catalog /kˈæṭəl`ɔːg/ : カタログ
Catalog means “a list of things”. The etymology comes from kata (down) and legein (to count). The original meaning is Greek katalogos (register). A catalog is a list of exhibits and items organized and arranged. Let’s see example sentences of catalog.
10 years ago, people saw a mail order catalog and ordered what they wanted, but now replaced with an online shopping. Old and conservative company still use a thick catalog. Advanced companies abolish a paper catalog and provides an online catalog. To get this company’s online catalog, apply for the membership. You can use a catalog gift to give someone a mid-year gift or year-end gift. You do not have to give someone unnecessary things.
catalysis /kətˈæləsɪs/ : 触媒作用
Catalysis means “a process of quicken chemical reaction”. The etymology comes from cata (down) and lyein (loosen). The original meaning is Greek katalysis (dissolving).
Catalysis means a phenomenon that a particular substance promotes chemical reaction of other substances without changing itself. Catalyst means a substance that causes catalysis. Let’s see several examples of catalyst.
Enzyme is a catalyst that is most familiar with us. Enzyme cause chemical reactions within our body and produce substances that is necessary to vital activities. In addition, human have used enzyme for food fermentation. Platinum is an excellent catalyst, used as a purifying catalyst for automobile exhaust gas.
catapult /kˈæṭəp`ʌlt/ : ぱちんこ、射出機、弩
Catapult means “a toy to throw small things”, and the etymology comes from cata (through) and pallein (throwing). The original meaning is the Latin catapulta (war machine for throwing). Catapult is British English, its synonym, slingshot is American English.
Catapult is a toy that fly pebbles with rubber cords on both ends of a Y-shaped bar. It converts the elastic energy of rubber into kinetic energy of bullets and shoots it. You can use pebbles and tree nuts as bullets. In the past, it was used as a weapon of hunting. No hunting license is necessary for hunting in a catapult in Japan.
The second meaning of catapult is “aircraft injection machine”, also called aircraft catapult. An aircraft catapult is equipped with an aircraft carrier. Currently steam catapult is the mainstream, but higher-performance electromagnetic catapults are being developed.
cataract /kˈæṭər`ækt/ : 白内障
Cataract means “an eye disease with clouded lens”. The etymology comes from cata (down) and rhattein (to break). The original meaning is Greek katarhaktes (waterfall). The another meaning in Latin is “portcullis”, and this means obstruction for eyes, which lead to the meaning “eye disease” in English.
Cataract is the disease in which your lens in your eyes become white by aging, and leaving it results in losing your sight. Cataract cannot be cured with medicine. It is common treatment to replace a clouded lens with an artificial lens by surgery. The surgery is painless due to anesthesia, and patients can receive treatment in a day.
catastrophe /kətˈæstrəfi/ : 大災害
Catastrophe means “a big disaster”. The etymology comes from kata (down) and strephein (to turn). The original meaning is Greek katastrophe (overturning). The synonym is disaster. Let’s see example sentences of catastrophe.
Predicting catastrophes is almost impossible, and so we should have emergency rations in store to prepare catastrophes. Economic crisis is no more than a catastrophe for many workers.