carnage /kάɚnɪdʒ/ : 大量虐殺
原義はラテン語のcarnaticum (動物を屠ること)です。同義語はmassacre, genocide, mass murderです。
Carnage means “killing many people during war”. The etymology comes from carnem (meat). The original meaning is Latin carnaticum (slaughter of animals). Its synonyms are massacre, genocide and mass murder. Let’s see examples of carnage.
In the Middle Ages, Europeans carried out carnage to Native Americans and Indigenous Australians. During WW2, Nazis carried out carnage to Jewish people.
carnal /kάɚnl/ : 肉体の
Carnal means “relating to one’s body”. The etymology comes from carnis (of the meat). The original meaning is Latin carnalis (natural). Its synonym is sensual. Let’s see example sentences of carnal.
All human has carnal desire for species preservation (or conservation). Female’s plump body excite male’s carnal desire. It is unwise to live only for carnal pleasure.
carnation /kɑɚnéɪʃən/ : カーネーション
Carnation means “a red flower”. The etymology comes from caro (meat). The original meaning is Latin carnationem (meat).
Carnation is the perennial plant which makes bright red flowers. It is indigenous to from Southern Europe to Mediterranean coasts in Western Asia. In Islamic countries where the worship of idols are banned, they use a carnation as Arabesque’s patterns. The red carnation’s flower language is “the love for mother”, and so Japan has the culture where children gives red carnation to their mother in Mother’s Day.
carnival /kάɚnəv(ə)l/ : 謝肉祭・カーニバル
carnivalは「謝肉祭」を意味し、語源はcaro(肉)とlavare(離れる)に由来します。原義はラテン語のcarne vale (肉よ、さらば！)です。
Carnival means “a kind of festival”. The etymology comes from caro (meat) and lavera (to leave). The original meaning is Latin carne vale (meat, farewell!).
Carnival is a festival hold before Lent (click here for more detail of Lent). During Lent, people should have an abstemious diet, so they eat meat as they like in Carnival. Carnival literally means festival to “say farewell to meat”. During carnival, people have a fancy dress parade or events of throwing sweets and flowers. After carnival, Lent begins, and people have a simple meal until the Easter after 40 days.
carnivore /kάɚnəv`ɔɚ/ : 肉食動物
Carnivore means “animals which feed on other animals”. The etymology comes from caro (meat) and vorare (devour).
Carnivore is an animal that feed on other animals. Carnivorous animals eat meat and organs, which is easily digested, and so their digestive organs have more simpler structure than those of herbivorous animals. Carnivores eat animals similar to themselves, so they can take enough nourishment and salt.
However, carnivores have difficulty with getting their foods. Animals preyed by carnivores are always running away, so they have to maintain an ability to catch them. Otherwise, carnivores will starve to death.
incarnation /ìnkɑɚnéɪʃən/ : 受肉
Incarnation means “the act of God forming into a human”. The etymology comes from in (within) and caro (meat). The original meaning is Latin incarnationem (the act of being made flesh).
Incarnation is the act of God coming in the form of human. Especially in Christianity, incarnation means that the God’s child, Christ appear as human named Jesus.
reincarnation /rìːìnkɑɚnéɪʃən/ : 転生・輪廻
Reincarnation means “living again after one’s death”. The etymology comes from re (again) and incarnation (forming into flesh).
Reincarnation means to living things died live again after their death. The idea of reincarnation exist not only in Buddhism, but also in Hindu and Jainism. Buddhism regard reincarnation as suffering, and their goal is to be liberated from it.
In recent Japan, reincarnation is used in fantasy novels. Reincarnation to another world is the popular genre in a certain novel-sharing website. It is common story that uncool NEET or shut-in people are suddenly hit by a truck, reincarnate into cool and competent guy, and get popular with many young women.